Articles tagged with: Maps

The Roots of Liberty and Slavery

In 1888, John F. Smith was commissioned by Library of Congress to create a map depicting his impression of slavery’s spread across the United States. Created decades after the end of the Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, the map is obviously subject to over twenty years of historical interpretation and the experience of Reconstruction. Nevertheless, Smith’s map offers an interesting view on slavery’s spread and the roots of its decline. Viewed through the lens of history, this map can support the viewpoint that the destruction of slavery was not an initial aim of the United States Civil War.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – The Aftermath of the Mexican American War

Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoFor much of the middle portion of the 19th century, Manifest Destiny – the idea that the United States was destined to occupy and remake the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans – shaped American foreign policy. While the Louisiana Purchase and the 1846 Oregon Treaty furthered the goal of coast-to-coast settlement, the February 2, 1848 signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo completed the southern half of the Manifest Destiny puzzle and ended the Mexican American War.

While the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resolved the issues between Mexico and the United States that led to war, it created many new issues within the United States as rival political factions vied to form the new territory in their own view.


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